To investigate the criminal conduct of all institutions, organizations, and individuals involved in the persecution of Falun Gong; to bring such investigations, no matter how long it takes, no matter how far and deep we have to search, to full closure; to exercise fundamental principles of humanity; and to restore and uphold justice in society.

Summary Report on the Crime of Live Organ Harvesting inside China by the World Organization to Investigate the Persecution of Falun Gong (WOIPFG)-Chapter 6, 7, 8

August 3, 2016
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Chapter 6: The Claim that Organs are from Death Row Prisoners is a Lie

I. The number of death row prisoners far less than the organ transplant volumes


According to Amnesty International’s records, from 1995 to 1999, the annual average of executed death row prisoners in China was around 1,680 per year. Between 2000 and 2005, the average number was 1,616 per year. These numbers vary from year to year, but overall, the average numbers before and after the persecution of FalunGong started was about the same.[1] While Amnesty International’s numbers may be a low estimate, even if the estimate was higher it would fail to explain the exponential growth in transplant volumes in China since the year 2000.

China’s officially released numbers for kidney transplants far exceeds the number of death row prisoners. Huang Jiefu’s claim that the annual kidney transplant volume is 5,500-10,000 already far exceeds the number of death row prisoners. WOIPFG’s investigation indicates that from 2000 to 2005, China performed at least 12,200 kidney transplants per year.

The discrepancy is even greater if we are talking about the actual kidney transplant volumes. For example, Peking University People’s Hospital performed 4,000 kidney transplants in one year. The number of death row prisoners for the entire country would be far from enough to meet the demand of just this one hospital.

Figure 6.1 Screenshot of Xinhua Web in September 2013

II. Matching probability indicates that the organ pool size is much greater than the number of death row prisoners


Usually the match ratio for a donor that is unrelated to the transplant patient is 6.5 percent. Based on Huang Jiefu’s claim that the number of kidney transplants in 2000 and 2004 were5,500 and 10,000 respectively, at least 42,000 to 77,000 potential donors would be required per year as the base population for the match ratio.

Figure 6.2 Total quantity of organ transplants, released by Huang Jiefu in Madrid in March 2010

III. Only a small number of death row prisoners qualify to become organ donors due to health factors

1) In 2009, Hangzhou city of Zhejiang Province conducted a hepatitis B checkup for 482 detainees, and found that 29 percent tested positive.[2]

Figure 6.3TheHepatitis B Checkup Results of 482 Detainees in Hangzhou City

2) In 2006, Heze City of Shangdong Province also conducted a physical check of detainees, and found that 1.29 percent tested positive for AIDS and syphilis, and 28.91 percent tested positive for hepatitis B and hepatitis C.

Figure 6.4 Results of physical checkups for detainees in Heze City of Shangdong Province

IV. The donors in excellent health, as specified in Chinese doctors’ medical papers, were not death row prisoners

Of the 300 medical theses from 200 hospitals collected by WOIPFG investigators,[3]2084 cases of various transplant operations were recorded where a description of the “donor” was specified. The “donors” were described as having “no history of long-term medication,” “no hepatitis B, hepatitis C, malignant tumors or chronic illnesses,” “no history of alcohol abuse, diabetes or other illnesses” and “no fatty liver.”The health of the “donors,” as described by hospitals in many different provinces, is consistently good.

V. The excellent health of organ “donors” as described in Chinese doctors’ medical papers exceeds the average health metrics of normal Chinese adults

“A number of surveys which used sampling data from city populations show that 12.5 percent~35.4 percent of Chinese adults have fatty liver, making it the No.1 liver disease among Chinese adults, replacing viral hepatitis.” Professor Zeng Minde, honorary group leader of the Fatty Liver and Alcoholic Liver Disease Group of the Chinese Medical Society, said. He also said that China has seen a dramatic increase in people with obesity and type 2 diabetes, suggesting that the percentage of the Chinese population with fatty liver will continue to rise.[4]

Table 6.1 Examples of “Donors” in Excellent Health from 2084 transplant cases at 36 hospitals[5]

Hospital Name

Time Period of Transplant

Description of “Donors”

1. Dongguan (city) Taiping People’s Hospital

2002/8 – 2005/8

August/2002-August/2008

Implementation of 350 kidney transplants.

90 combined liver-kidney extractions and 260 liver extractions. “Donors” were 20 to 30 years of age, liver function tests normal, HBsAg. HBeAg. HBeAb. HCV-Ab. HEV-Ab. HIV-Ab. RPR. TPPA tested negative.[6]

2. Beijing Military Region General Hospital

2005/ 4 – 2007/7

April/2005-July/2007

Implementation of 30 liver transplants, combined liver-kidney extraction from cadavers. “Donors” were 18 to 42 years of age, tested negative for hepatitis B, syphilis and HIV, no tuberculosis, no malignant tumor, no chronic illnesses. The warm ischemia time of "donor livers" was 2~7min. The average time was 4.6min.[7]

3. Navy General Hospital

 

2005/3- 2005/8

March/2005

Implementation of three heart transplants, “donors” were brain-dead, ages 31, 22, and 28, no history of cardiovascular diseases or any other key organ diseases.[8]

4. Capital Medical University Affiliated Anzhen Hospital

1992/4 – 2006/4

51 heart transplants, all male ages 21 to 43, no history of cardiovascular diseases or any other key organ diseases. Transportation took less than 1 hour. In all 51 cases, the distance between where the hearts were extracted and where transplants were conducted was less than 1 hour.[9]

5. Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong province

2002/1 – 2005/1

44 liver transplants, “donors” had no hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV, syphilis or other blood-transmitted diseases. The warm ischemia time was 5 to 10 minutes, averaging 5.6 minutes.[10]

2003/3 - 2012/10

25 heart extractions and transplants, “donors” were 20 to 35 years of age, with no history of cardiovascular diseases.[11]

6. Shandong Provincial Hospital

 

2005/1-2008/12

6 combined liver-kidney transplants; “donors” were 19 to 40 years of age, averaging 28. No history of alcoholic use, no malignant tumors, no infectious diseases, no diabetes, and their liver and kidney functions were normal, tested negative for HIV. Warm ischemia time was 2.5 to 4 minutes.[12]

7. Weifang People’s Hospital

 

2001/3 – 2006/8

9 liver transplants, cadaveric livers from healthy young people, liver function normal, five tests of hepatitis B negative, fast extraction method was used, warm ischemia time was 2.5 to 4 minutes.[13]

8. Affiliated Hospital of Binzhou Medical College, Shandong Province

2004/10 /22

One lung transplant, the “donor” was male, no history of cardiovascular and lung diseases, no history of smoking, warm ischemia time was 2 minutes.[14]

9. Jinan No.4 People’s Hospital & Fujian Medical University Affiliated Xiehe Hospital

2006/7/1, 2006/8/6

2 heart extractions and transplants, “donors” were 38 and 26, and had always been in good health.[15]

 

10. Jining Medical College Affiliated Hospital, Shandong Province

2002/12/13

One liver extraction and transplantation, “donor” was male, died of traumatic brain injury, in good health when alive, with normal liver function, warm ischemia time was 4 minutes.[16]

11. Jinan Central Hospital

2002/8

One liver extraction and transplantation, “donor” was 25 years of age, no infectious diseases, no malignant tumors, and no liver diseases.[17]

12. Fudan University Affiliated Zhongshan Hospital

2000/5 – 2011/4

298 heart transplants, 291 cadaveric hearts, 7 cases of brain-dead donor hearts, ages 18 to 45, average age 26.8±4.5, 283 male and 15 female. “Donors” all had no obvious history of cardiovascular diseases and other major organ diseases. Since 2007, 60 hearts were extracted after the hearts stopped beating, and the rest were extracted while the hearts were beating.[18]

13. Nanjing Military Region Fuzhou General Hospital

 

1999-2004

40 fast kidney-liver extractions and liver transplants, all 40 “donors” were male non-heart-beating cadavers with an average age of 27 (21 to 45 years of age). Liver function normal and HIV negative.[19]

14. No.2 Affiliated Hospital, Haerbin Medical University

2004/1

One heart transplant, “donor” was 37 years old and brain-dead. He weighed 72kg, and was in good health when alive, warm ischemia time was less than 5 minutes.[20]

15. Wuxi People’s Hospital, Anhui Province

 

2002/9-2011/1

100 lung extractions and 101 lung transplants, “donors” had no history of primary heart disease, no history of lung diseases, no history of heart or lung surgery, no severe chest injury, no lung injury, no aspiration pneumonia, no suppurative disease, no malignant lesions, and tested negative for HIV and hepatitis.[21]

16. No.1 Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University

2004/10-2006/4

117 liver transplants using cadaveric livers. The “donors” had no liver diseases, no malignant tumors, no obvious steatosis, and tested negative for hepatitis B.[22]

17. No.1 Affiliated Hospital of Suzhou University

 

2000/8-2001/4

5 liver transplants and extractions, “donors” were 20 to 40 years of age, no infectious diseases, no malignant tumors, no chronic liver diseases.[23]

2000-2006

6 heart extractions and transplants, “donors” were 25 to 37 years of age, no history of cardiovascular disease, lymphocyte cross matching negative, cytomegalovirus, EB virus, hepatitis, and HIV tested negative.[24]

18. Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital

 

2004/6-2005/6

42 combined kidney-liver extractions, “donors” were 19 to 38 years of age, 40 were male, 2 were female, no infectious diseases, no kidney or liver diseases.[25]

19. Zhenjiang No.1 People’s Hospital

2005/4 - 2006/12

4 heart extractions and transplants, “donors” were male, ages 23 to 40, no history of cardiovascular and lung diseases, and no history of thoracic (chest) surgery.[26]

20. The Second Hospital Of Nanjing

2004/3-2004/11

11 fast combined liver-kidney extractions, all “donors” were brain-dead, ages 18 to 36, no infectious diseases, no lung diseases, no liver diseases, no other serious illnesses.[27]

21. Wuxi No.2 People’s Hospital

 

2000/12-2003/3

5 liver extractions and transplants, “donors” were brain-dead, healthy, young adult males.[28]

 

22. Xuzhou Medical College Affiliated Hospital

 

2002/4-2002/7

2 heart transplants, “donors” were male, ages 28 and 24, died of traumatic brain injury. “Donors” had been in good health, tested negative for hepatitis B, cytomegalovirus and EB virus.[29]

23. The Second Hospital Of Hebei Medical University

2001/10-2002/10

5 liver transplants, all cadaveric livers, “donors” ages 20 to 40, no infectious diseases, no malignant tumor, no chronic diseases.[30]

24. Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University

Until 2006

60 combined liver-kidney extractions from cadavers, 30 cases were non-heart-beating cadaver “donors,” 28 males, 2 females, preoperative test of immune system diseases and hepatitis were negative, kidney and liver functions normal.[31]

25. Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University

2002/3-2005/12

107 liver extractions and transplants, low temperature perfusion to the organs during extraction, all “donors” were healthy.[32]

2004/1-2008/6

91 liver extractions and transplants, “donors” were 19 to 55, averaging 29 years of age, 80 males and 11 females, preoperative test of liver and kidney functions normal, virological examination also normal. Multi-organ fast extraction method was used.[33]

2004/1-2006/7

64 liver extractions from non-heart-beating cadavers, “donors” ages 19 to 55 (average 32.5). Preoperative liver and kidney function tested normal, no fatty liver, tested negative for hepatitis C and HIV.[34]

26. China Medical University Affiliated No.1 Hospital

 

1995/5-2005/6

122 orthotopic liver transplants, 165 combined liver-kidney extractions, “donors” were all brain-dead, ages 20 to 54, 119 males, 3 females, preoperative HIV and hepatitis tests were negative, liver and kidney function normal.[35]

27. The Fourth Military Medical University Affiliated No.1 Hospital

Xijing Hospital

2001/1/26-2003/9/26

26 orthotopic heart transplants and extractions, “donors” were male, brain-dead, no history of cardiovascular diseases.[36]

28. PLA 452 Hospital

 

20067-2009/10

164 kidney transplants and extractions. Recorded “donors” were 81 males and 1 female, ages 22 to 46, with an average age of 32.3, no tuberculosis, no hepatitis, no syphilis, no HIV or other infectious diseases.[37]

2007/8-2009/4

34 kidney transplants and extractions, “donors” were healthy, no high blood pressure, no cardiovascular disease, no tuberculosis, no diabetes, no kidney and liver diseases.[38]

29. The First Affiliated

Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University

 

2001/3-2004/12

35 orthotopic liver transplants and extractions, all “donors” were brain-dead healthy adult, warm ischemia time 3 to 7 minutes, averaging 4.4 minutes.[39]

2003/2-2004/1

2 orthotopic heart transplants from cadaveric “donors,” all younger than 35 years of age, no history of cardiovascular diseases, no hepatitis, no tuberculosis or other infectious diseases.[40]

30. Shanxi Armed Police Corps Hospital, Armed Police Forces General Hospital

2004/10-2006

12 liver transplants and extractions, all liver “donors” were male, died of traumatic brain injury.[41]

 

31. Inner Mongolia Medical University Affiliated Hospital

2003/8-2004/12

2 orthotopic heart transplants, “donors” were male, 31 and 42 years of age, brain-dead, in good health.[42]

 

32. Dongguan People’s Hospital

2003/4-2003/12

4 orthotopic heart transplants, “donors” were male, brain-dead, ages 20 to 30, no history of cardiovascular diseases, warm ischemia time 0 to 3.5 minutes.[43]

33. Foshan First People’s Hospital

1999/12-2001/12

13 orthotopic liver transplants (including 1 secondary liver transplant) and extractions, “donors” ages 20 to 35, no infectious diseases, no malignant tumors, no chronic diseases.[44]

34. Guangzhou Military Region Guangzhou General Hospital

2007

50 combined liver-kidney extractions and transplants, “donors” had no hepatitis C, no syphilis, no HIV, and no liver and kidney diseases.[45]

35. PLA 107 Hospital

2003/1-2010/10

168 liver transplants, cadaveric livers, no malignant tumors, and tested negative for HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis C. Two donors tested positive for surface antigen, the rest were negative.[46]

Sources: WOIPFG, 2016.

 

Chapter 7:The Claim that All Organs Were From Donation in 2015 is a Lie

The CCP announced that beginning January 1, 2015, it would stop using executed prisoners as donors for organ transplants, and that donated organs from the general public would be the sole source for organ transplants.

However, WOIPFG’s latest telephone investigation completely discredited this claim. From January 2015 to November 2015, WOIPFG investigators spoke with staff in 169 Chinese hospitals designated to perform organ transplants and a number of institutes for voluntary organ donation. The investigators found:

1. Organ transplants are still being performed in large quantities with short wait times and abundant donors, a pattern that cannot be explained by a random supply of voluntary donors.

2. China’s official organ donation institutes claim that donors are scarce, and successful matches are few and far between.

3. Some surgeons frankly acknowledged that the CCP’s campaign of harvesting organs from living Falun Gong practitioners is still going on. Some also confirmed that Jiang Zemin ordered the killing of Falun Gong practitioners for their organs, and that all hospitals are carrying out the order.

I. The organ donation system in China is actually in a paralyzed state, and has failed to function


1. Huang Jiefu said that China’s Organ Donation and Transplantation Committee exists in name only
In his interviews with The New York Times and Beijing Youth Daily on November 18, 2015, Huang Jiefu revealed that China’s voluntary organ donation system is in a paralyzed state, and has failed to function:
"When being asked about the biggest problem currently, he admitted to the lack of coordination between the Red Cross and the National Planning Commission, the two key departments in setting up the organ donation system. The two departments jointly established the national Organ Donation and Transplantation Committee on March 1, 2014, but the Committee practically exists in name only, 'so far no meeting has been hold yet'. As the chairman, he felt powerless and was concerned.[47]

2. China’s organ donation rate is only 0.6ppm (0.6 per 1 million people)[48]

Organ transplantation in China started in the 1970s, but until 2003 post mortem organ donation from members of the general public was practically nonexistent. In March 2010, a pilot project for an organ donation system started in Shanghai, Tianjin, Liaoning Province, Shandong Province, Zhejiang Province, Guangdong Province, Jiangxi Province, Xiamen of Fujian Province, Nanjing of Jiangsu Province, and Wuhan of Hubei Province. Guangdong Province’s Human Organ Donation Pilot Project officially went into operation on April 20, 2010.

p>Figure 7.1 Snapshot of Yangzi Evening Newspaper

 

Yangzi Evening Newspaper reported on a press conference about the Organ Donation Pilot Project held by Nanjing City Jiangsu Province on February 25, 2011. The article revealed that since becoming one of10 Chinese cities included in the organ donation system’s pilot project in March the previous year, Nanjing has yet to see any organ donors. Over the past 20 years, just three persons have donated their organs in Nanjing.

According to Huang Jiefu, China has about 300,000 patients annually who are in urgent need of organ transplants, yet there are only about 10,000 transplant operations per year. At present, Chinese citizens’ post mortem organ donation rate is just 0.6ppm (0.6 per one million people), making China among the countries with the lowest organ donation rates in the world.[49]

Professor Chen Zhonghua of Tongji University School of Medicine, which is affiliated with Huazhong University of Science and Technology, stated that from 2003 to August 2009 only 130 cases of successful organ donation from deceased mainland Chinese citizens were recorded. According to data released during the 2014 Chinese Organ Transplant Conference, there were only 1,448 cases of organ donation from deceased mainland Chinese citizens in the three-year period from 2010 to 2013.[50]

II. According to organ donation organizations, organ donation is scarce, and the number of successful donations is few and far between

WOIPFG investigators called China’s Red Cross organ donation offices at the end of 2015. Though few picked up the phone, those who did claimed that the number of successful donations is very low.

1.The staff from the Red Cross Society of Beijing said that organ donation has not yet begun. (December 6, 2015, Phone number: 861063558766), (Recording download: MP3 Transcription: Appendix 12)

Beijing has the largest transplant volumes in China. The category of hospitals accredited by the Ministry of Health to conduct transplants independently includes 20 hospitals. The actual transplant volume is appalling. Director of Urology at the Peking University People's Hospital ZhuJiye toldChina Economic Weekly that the hospital "once performed 4,000 kidney transplants within a year."[51]

2. Tianjin Red Cross workers said that since the organ donation bank system was set up in 2003more than 170 donations have been made. (December 11, 2015, Phone number: 862227311180) (Recording Download:MP3, Transcription: Appendix 13)

According to a Tianjin Daily’s report on March 1, 2015, "The reporter learned from the Red Cross recently that since Tianjin launched the human organ donation system in March 2010, Tianjin has a total of 123 cases of successful organ donation, the cumulative number of donated large organs is 278."[52]

Such a low number of donations cannot explain the huge organ transplant volumes in Tianjin. Tianjin has four transplant hospitals accredited by the Ministry of Health. Out of these four hospitals, the Organ Transplant Center at Tianjin First Center Hospital has more than 500 transplant beds, and from 2006 to 2014the hospital’s actual transplant volume per year was in the range of 5,400 to 8,000.[53]

3. Shanghai only had five successful cases or organ donation

Staff from the Red Cross organ donation office in Huangpu District, Shanghai(Phone number: 86-63365880), said on December 17, 2015,they only started this work during the first half of the previous year. They said a document was issued from a senior level regarding the process, and organ donations are very difficult. To date, there have only been five cases of organ donation in Shanghai.(Recording Download:MP3,Transcription:Appendix 14)

Shanghai has 11 organ transplantation hospitals accredited by the Ministry of Health, all of which are national transplant centers. These hospitals carry out large numbers of organ transplants each year. So the five cases of organ donation are not the main source of organs for transplant hospitals in Shanghai.

4.One female staff member at the organ donation office of the Red Cross chapter in Qinhuangdao, Hebei Province said, "As of now, in our office, we haven’t had any organ donations."

On May 14, 2015, a female staff member at the organ donation office of the Red Cross chapter in Qinhuangdao, Hebei Province said, “There are people who have registered for organ donations at some point in their life, so they intended to donate their organs, but even such cases are scarce. All of our cases are such that a person registers for donation and the donation happens when this person dies. As of now, in our office we haven’t had any actual organ donations.”(Recording Download:MP3,Transcription:Appendix 14)

5. “It is almost impossible for Chinese people to donate their organs, you can’t find any donors, almost can’t find any donors who would be willing to donate unless the person is a relative!”

This was the response by Liu Zhonghua in March 2015. Liu is the chief physician of the Urological Department at Henan People’s Hospital (Phone number: 8613503716066)(Recording Download: MP3, Transcription: Appendix 16)

6. “Even if the deceased’s close relatives consent to the organ donation, sometimes all it takes is one word from a distant relative, and the family changes their mind”

In July 2015, on-duty staff at the organ donation office of the Red Cross chapter in Jiaozuo said, some people have registered for organ donation, but the number is very, very small; there are people who have registered, but you must wait for them to die of natural causes before organ donation could take place; the number of people who donate their organs after they die from accidents is very few and far between. As for those who donate organs after death, they can’t make the decision whether to donate or not after they’re dead. So their family has to call us to give consent to the donation. Even if the deceased’s close relatives consent to donate the deceased’s organ(s), sometimes all it takes is one word from a distant relative, and the family changes their mind. (Evidence Serial Number: 56)
 (Recording download: MP3, Transcription: Appendix 18)

III. Huang Jiefu claimed that the number of organ transplants in 2015 hit a new record


In his interviews with The New York Times and Beijing Youth Daily, Huang Jiefu said, "As of the 17th of this month, organ donations from citizens have reached 2,297 cases this year, and it is expected to exceed 2,500 cases for the whole year. If each donor can donate three organs after death, the organ donation volume will reach approximately 7,500 this year. If we take into account living related donation, the number of transplants will exceed 10,000 cases this year, which will be the highest in our history, and the quality of transplants has also been greatly improved."[54]

From all the evidence collected, we conclude: the claim that only donated organs were used in 2015 is a lie. But on the contrary, China’s organ transplantation industry is still going strong. As Huang said, the number of organ transplantation in 2015 hit a new record. So now questions remain unanswered, including who were the donors? And what kind of horrific deeds are being done in the dark?

IV. Our investigation shows that all transplant hospitals under investigation are conducting transplant operations on a massive scale

 

Transplant hospitals have been actively touting business, indicating no lack of organ supply. Hospitals guarantee organ quality and short wait times. The wait time for liver and kidney transplant patients could be as short as 2-3 days, or within 1-2 weeks. The wait time normally would not exceed one month.

 

1. “We have plenty of donors. We can still select young and good ones.”

(Evidence Serial Number: 63) On June 26, 2015, Dr. Chen Yongfeng from the Organ Transplant Department at Zhengzhou People’s Hospital told a WOIPFG investigator, “Our hospital is the best in Henan Province for performing liver transplants. We did several transplants today; two were liver transplants. The donors are locals. The quality of these donors is trustworthy. If you need a transplant and you give us enough time, we can select a good and relatively young liver. We have plenty of donors. We can still select young and good ones. It is hard to say if that will be the case down the road.”(Recording Download:MP3,Transcription:Appendix 1)

2. “The shortest wait time for a donor is approximately 2-3 days, in general. The longest is over 10 days.”

(Evidence Serial Number: 61) On June 25, 2015, a doctor on-duty at the Hepatobiliary Surgery Department of Zhengzhou People’s Hospital told an investigator, “The shortest wait time for a donor is approximately 2-3 days, in general. The longest is over 10 days. The cost is about 500,000 Yuan (US$78,000). We have a lot of donors.” When asked why their wait time is shorter than other hospitals and who were the donors, the doctor said, “For this matter, um, I cannot provide any answers. I can’t. Don’t ask. Don’t ask these questions. The organs are directly sent to our operating rooms every day, one or two operations every day, guaranteed.” (Recording Download: MP3, Transcription: Appendix 2)

3. “Some (organs) could be sent here overnight. We would perform (the surgeries) overnight. That is very common here.”

(Evidence Serial Number: 65) On March 19, 2015, Dr. Li Gongquan, liver transplant surgeon at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, said, “It could be done within a week. If you want, we can do organ matching with him…We did one like this today, and we have just finished it. Tomorrow there may be another case…Some (organs) could be sent here overnight. We would perform (the surgeries) overnight. That is very common here.”
(Recording Download:MP3,Transcription:Appendix 5)

V. Crimes of harvesting organs from living Falun Gong practitioners continue


The CCP claims that mainland China has completely stopped using organs from death row prisoners. Yet under the circumstance that the number of donated organs is far from sufficient in replacing death row prisoners’ organs, hospitals across China are still performing an exceedingly large number of transplant operations. There is still ample supply of organs. How can we explain this abnormal phenomenon?

1. “Of course, we know who the donors were, as to whether these donors were Falun Gong practitioners or not, that’s not our concern. All we care about is whether the organs meet our requirements.”

(Evidence Serial Number:66)On February 8, 2015, Tan Yunshan, the chief physician in the Liver Pathological Department at the Affiliated Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University said, “All the donors for liver transplant operations now come from the ‘source.’ Of course, we know who the donors were, as to whether these donors were Falun Gong practitioners or not, that’s not our concern. Regardless of whether the prisoner gave his/her signature of consent for organ donation, we use the organ(s) anyway. All we care about is whether the organs meet our requirements.”

Investigator: "Do you know that Bai Shuzhong, the former Minister of PLA General Logistics Department of Health, confessed that Jiang Zemin gave the order for harvesting organs from living Falun Gong practitioners for transplants? So is every hospital doing surgeries under that policy?" Tan Yunshan said, "Yes, that’s right." (Recording download: MP3, Transcription: Appendix 19)

2. “The existence of an organ bank of detained Falun Gong practitioners, and using organs from Falun Gong practitioners” “Correct, that’s right.”

(Evidence Serial Number:45) On June 30, 2015, Dr. Han at the Hepatobiliary Surgery Department of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhongshan University spoke to a WOIPFG investigator during a phone investigation. Upon hearing that Huang Jiefu performs more than 500 liver transplants every year, Dr. Han said, “Presently, we can even perform more than 1,500 transplants [per year].” When the investigator mentioned the existence of an organ bank comprised of detained Falun Gong practitioners and the use of organs from Falun Gong practitioners, Dr. Han confirmed twice by saying, “Correct. That’s right.”(RecordingDownload:MP3,Transcription:Appendix 22)

3.Investigator: “Since Jiang Zemin gave the order to use imprisoned Falun Gong practitioners for organ harvesting, you dare to perform (organ harvesting), is that right?”

Dr. Gong: "Of course."

On October 12, 2015, Dr. Gong of the second ward of the Cardiothoracic Surgery Department of the Affiliated Tongji Hospital of Huazhong University of Science and Technology answered, “Of course” to a direct question about using organs from Falun Gong practitioners:

WOIPFG”s telephone investigation with Dr. Gong on October 12, 2015,affirms that:

1. Doctors know they are using Falun Gong practitioners’ organs

2. Organ harvesting from these practitioners is done in accordance with Jiang Zemin's order

 (RecordingDownload:MP3,Transcription:Appendix 23)

4. Falun Gong (Practitioners)... We also have those, there has been one case this year

On May 6, 2014, Shen Zhenya, Director of Cardiovascular Surgery and Research of the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, said: We now have (donors) every month. When you come, I guess the wait time is about two weeks, a donor should be found. Falun Gong (practitioner)... we also have those. There has been one case this year. (Recording Download: MP3)

5. “You and I both know who the donors are… ”

In March 2014, Zeng Wen, deputy director of the Cardiovascular Surgery of Beijing Anzhen Hospital, said, “You and I both know who the donors are. It is impossible to provide you with donor information.” When asked whether Falun Gong practitioners are the source of the donors, Zeng did not deny, but only replied, “Let’s drop this conversation." (Recording Download: MP3)

6.“Able to provide proof that donors are Falun Gong practitioners… ”

(01186-10-13371621279) On April 10, 2007, Chen Qiang, a kidney broker who worked for the transplant division of the PLA 307 Hospital in Beijing, emphasized that they run a supply chain involving officials, the police and the prison, trading in Falun Gong practitioners’ organs. In addition, they can provide proof that the donors are Falun Gong practitioners. (Recording Download:MP3,Transcription:Appendix 22)

VI. Doctors in mainland China murder for organs

In 2015, WOIPFG received telephone recordings from two Falun Gong practitioners. The recordings were telephone conversations that showed the shocking lack of conscience of doctors in mainland China who slaughter practitioners for their organs. The doctors not only claimed that the volume of organs harvested is “innumerable” and “countless,” one doctor also openly threatened to kill the Falun Gong practitioner that called him.

1.  “Yes, it’s from a Falun Gong (practitioner), so what?”

On December 21, 2015, when answering a Falun Gong practitioner’s phone call at 9:55am, the doctor on duty (male, Lunming Li) at the Department of Cardiac Transplantation of the Central Hospital of Jiangmen in Guangdong Province claimed: “Yes (killed Falun Gong practitioners for their organs), so what? They were from Falun Gong (practitioners), so what?” “We have done so many, maybe you haven’t thoroughly investigated it, too many.” (Recording Download:MP3 Transcription: Appendix 25

2. “You dare to come here, I will kill you.”

On December 21, 2015, during a phone call that lasted 19:08 seconds, when a Falun Gong practitioner asked the doctor on duty at the Department of Cardiac Transplantation, Central Hospital of Jiangmen, Guangdong Province, “How many organs have you dug out from living Falun Gong practitioners?” He replied, “Countless.” When asked again, “Do you dare to confirm it is ‘countless’?” He repeated again, “Countless.” The doctor then directly threatened the Falun Gong practitioner who called him, “You dare to come here, I will kill you. After I kill you, then let’s see if you will go to heaven or hell.”(Recording Download:MP3 Transcription: Appendix 26)

According to WOIPFG’s investigation, Jiangmen Central Hospital Affiliated to Sun Yat-sen University began kidney transplants in 1999, liver transplants in July 2002, and conducted its first heart transplant in December 2005. The timeline of this hospital’s involvement in transplant surgeries coincides with the time the CCP began persecuting Falun Gong.[55]

The evidence uncovered during our investigation discredits the CCP’s initial claim that the “organs come from death row prisoners” and the current claim that the “organs come from donation.”

The crimes of the CCP’s organ harvesting was exposed in 2006, and under the close scrutiny of the international community, the CCP has denied these crimes while continuing to relentlessly slaughter Falun Gong practitioners.

Chapter 8: Tens of Millions of Falun Gong Practitioners Detained for Petitioning are the Suspected Main Sources for the Organ Donor Pool

The year 2000 marked a watershed in China’s organ transplant industry. Hospitals across China, large and small, rushed to provide the facilities and the surgical teams that would culminate in the industries’ explosive growth. The whole world knows that in China the waiting time for transplants is extremely short and there is ample supply of organs. Every year, several thousand foreigners partake in “transplant tourism” to China to receive their transplant operations. This has raised a question in the international surgical community, where do so many organs come from?

Under the direction of former CCP head Jiang Zemin, a comprehensive persecution against Falun Gong practitioners began in 1999. In response, tens of millions of Falun Gong practitioners traveled to Beijing to publicly appeal for an end to the persecution. Several million practitioners refused to give their names to the authorities in order to protect their families from persecution and were detained. These people simply disappeared without leaving any record.

In March 2006,witnesses and informants, including a veteran military doctor from Shenyang Military Region, spoke out and testified that the CCP was harvesting organs from living Falun Gong practitioners on a massive scale. As a result, WOIPFG, Canadian human rights lawyer David Matas, former Canadian MP David Kilgour, independent investigator Ethan Gutmann, congressmen, human rights lawyers, diplomats and journalists joined the ranks of those who began investigating these accusations.

Collectively, we unanimously believe that the multitude of nameless practitioners comprise both a stockpile and a continuing supply-line for the majority of the live donors that fuel China’s organ transplant industry today.

I. More than 10 million Falun Gong practitioners have been illegally arrested for peacefully petitioning


According to an internal investigation by the CCP’s Public Security Bureau, from May 1992 until July 1999, the number of Falun Gong practitioners grew from a handful of people to somewhere between 70 million and 100 million.[56]

Although Falun Gong was widely perceived even in Chinese Communist Party circles as a non-violent movement that stresses the ethical principles of truthfulness, compassion and forbearance, the number of practitioners now outnumbered the 65 million members of the Chinese Communist Party. Out of jealousy and fear, on July 20, 1999, the then leader of the CCP Jiang Zemin launched a nationwide, comprehensive persecution against Falun Gong practitioners. This persecution was carried out using the state-controlled media and police. In response, tens of millions of practitioners traveled to Beijing to petition, aiming to tell the authorities and the general public the truth about Falun Gong, to appeal for an end to the persecution and to ask that practitioners be allowed the right to practice freely. Every day, practitioners from all over China went to Beijing to peacefully petition. Their petitions were met with violent arrest and illegal detainment by the CCP. Many petitioners were forcefully sent home once arrested.

According to the Beijing Public Security Bureau’s internal information, as of April 2001, the number of Falun Gong practitioners arrested when petitioning in Beijing and had their names registered by the police, had reached 830,000. This excludes practitioners who did not give their names.[57] The CCP’s internal source indicates that the period from early 2000 to late 2001 marks a peak period of Falun Gong practitioners petitioning in Beijing. By calculating the additional consumption of steamed buns in Beijing, Beijing Public Security Bureau estimated that during peak time, on a single day, there could be more than 1 million practitioners petitioning in Beijing.[58]

To avoid implicating their families and workplaces in a persecution that had no apparent legal restraints and was becoming increasingly violent, many practitioners refused to reveal their names or other personal information to the police. As many of these “nameless” practitioners could not be registered or sent back home, they were promptly transported from short-term detention centers into the Laogai System (Labor camps, prisons, black jails, psychiatric wards, and long-term detention centers). Yet the CCP’s prisons and labor camps across China were already filled to capacity. As a result, the CCP transferred many of these nameless Falun Gong practitioners from the existing Laogai System into little-known underground prisons, labor camps and specialized concentration camps in remote areas.

According to sources in China, the CCP has 670 prisons and 300 labor camps known to the public, with a total capacity of approximately 1.8 million people. After huge numbers of Falun Gong practitioners were thrown into these facilities, they became seriously overcrowded. Therefore, utilizing military facilities and bunkers all over the country, the CCP built secret concentration camps where practitioners endured more covert and cruel persecution.[59]Countless Falun Gong practitioners have since disappeared and the CCPestablished the conditions necessary to create an organ donor pool and carry out large-scale organ harvesting.

As early as October 1, 2000, the Agence France Presse (AFP) reported that the CCP had built two concentration camps in Northeast and Northwest China. These two camps were each able to hold 50,000 detainees. Train loads of practitioners, who did not give their names and addresses to the authorities to avoid implicating others, were shipped to these secret concentration camps in Xinjiang. To this day, no one has come out of these camps  alive.[60]

II. Using code numbersinsteadof names to identify secretly detained Falun Gong practitioners as sources within the organ pool


We spoke with Chen Qiang, a kidney broker who worked for People's Liberation Army (PLA) No. 307 Hospital in Fengtai District, Beijing. He stated that he “could find the code number [of the organ donor] if he couldn’t find the real name, you know.”In addition, Chen emphasized that the authorities, the police and the prison system, operate a supply chain in trading the organs of Falun Gong practitioners. Chen also said he could provide materials to confirm that the organs were from Falun Dafa practitioners.[61]

III. 2.1 million locked up in labor camps from 2000 to 2006


China’s Caijing.com.cnreviewed the CCP’s “re-education through forced labor” system in an article published on November 16, 2013, titled “Forced Labor Camps Held Up to 300,000People At One Point.”[62]

According to the report, after the 1990s, the number of inmates in the CCP’s labor camps rose year after year and reached a peak of 300,000 per year. Although the numbers began to drop in 2006, there were still 90,000 inmates in 2012. The peak period of time,mentioned in the article, was between 2000 and 2006. During this time the number of Falun Dafa practitioners brutally persecuted by the CCP was at its highest point, and when the volume of transplantoperations were also at a peak. Using an increase of 300,000 people per year from 2000 to 2006, a rough calculation suggests that the CCP held approximately 2.1 million people in labor camps. In addition, the US government mentioned in its 2008 Religious Freedom Report that in China’s labor camps, more than half of the inmates were Falun Dafa practitioners.[63] Based on this, during the six years from 2000 to 2006, approximately 1.05 million Falun Dafa practitioners were detained in labor camps.

In summary, we believe that during the 14 years between 1999 and 2013, as many as several million Falun Dafapractitionerscould have been imprisoned in China’sforced labor campsystem.

IV. Explosive growth of China’sorgan transplant industrycorrelateswith the time during which Falun Gong Practitioners were persecuted


1.The explosive growth ofthe organ transplant industry[64]

Since 1999, mainland China’s organ transplant industry has seen explosive growth.Across China’s provinces hospitals large and small in citiesand towns of varying sizes began doing organ extraction and transplantsen masse. Even some small-scale hospitals, specialized clinics, and hospitals specializing in traditional Chinese medicine that lacked the proper qualification to perform organ transplants, began performing organ transplants. The time period during which there was a rapid growth oforgan extraction and transplantscorrelates very strongly with the persecution of Falun Gong practitioners by the CCP.

2. Organ transplant centers/matching centers have emerged in great number 

Since 1999, mainland China saw a rapid emergence of a great many organ transplant centers and organ matching facilities. Many hospitals or medical departments, which had had no transplant expertisein the past quickly converted into organ transplant centers. The dates and basic information of some of these newly built medical facilities are presented in the table below.

Table 8.1 Dates of Construction and Overview of Organ Transplant Centers and Tissue Typing Centers[65]

Hospital

Overview

The Ministry of Health Forensic Pathology Key Laboratory

Established in October 1999 at Xi’an Jiaotong University’s Forensic Department, with the consent of the Ministry of Health’s Department of Medical Science, Technology and Education. Key laboratory co-founded by the Ministry of Health, Ministry of Public Security and the Supreme People’s Court. The laboratory claims, “Its research in the fields of organ transplant and tissue typing has reached an advanced international level.[66]

The PLA No.309 Hospital

Established in April 2002, the Organ Transplant Center of the PLA No. 309 Hospital was jointly founded by the Departments of Urology, Hepatobiliary Surgery and Cardiothoracic Surgery. In August 2005, the Nephrology and Hematology Departments merged into the transplant center. Officially designated the “Organ Transplant Center of the PLA” by the Health Department of the PLA’s General Logistics Department in March 2006. It was again renamed the “Organ Transplant Research Institute of the PLA” by the Health Department of the PLA’s General Logistics Department in 2011. As the hospital’s key revenue center, the Organ Transplant Center saw an increase in its gross revenue from 30 million yuan (US$4.5 million) in 2006 to 230 million yuan (US$35 million) in 2010 - an eightfold increase in five years.[67]

The PLA Second Artillery General Hospital

A Liver Transplant Center was established in the PLA Second Artillery General Hospital in July 2004.[68]

The General Hospital of Beijing Military Region

The hospital’s Hepatobiliary Surgery Department and Liver Transplant Center started clinical liver transplants in 1999.The Hepatobiliary Surgery Department claims to have established a fast and unobstructed channel to procure donor livers, not only from Beijing and its surrounding areas, but also from other provinces and cities without delay.[69]

The PLA No. 302 Hospital

A Liver Transplant Center was established in the PLA No. 302 Hospital in 2005.[70]

The PLA No. 307 Hospital

A Kidney Transplant Center was established in the PLA No. 307 Hospital in 2000.[71]

General Hospital of Chinese People's Armed Police Forces

Approved by the General Logistics Department of the Armed Police Forces, an Organ Transplant Research Center in the General Hospital of Armed Police Forces was established in April 2002.[72]

Affiliated Beijing You’an Hospital of Capital Medical University

Beijing You’an Hospital, affiliated with Capital Medical University, established a Liver Transplant Center in March 2003. In August 2004, the Sino-US Cooperative Center for Liver Transplantation was jointly set up by the hospital with the Thomas E. Starzl Transplantation Institute of the University of Pittsburgh in the US.[73]

Peking University People’s Hospital

Peking University Institute of Organ Transplantation, (formerly named Organ Transplant Center at Peking University), established in October 2001 under the personal guidance of Han Qide, vice chairman of the standing committee of the11th National People’s Congress.[74]

Third Hospital of Peking University

Organ Transplant Center in the Third Hospital of Peking University established in October 2001.[75]

Haidian Hospital in Beijing

Organ Transplant Center in Haidian Hospital established in November 2003.[76]

Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University

Established October 30, 2001.[77] The Zhongshan Hospital Organ Transplant Center performs more than 100 organ transplants every year, with an annual increase of 50 percent. On December 8, 2003, the Organ Transplant Center of Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, and Thomas E. Starzl Transplantation Institute of the University of Pittsburgh in the US jointly established a collaborating center, becoming the world’s largest organ transplant organization.[78]

Shanghai First People’s Hospital (aka Affiliated First People’s Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University)

Shanghai Clinical Center for Organ Transplantation was established in August 2001, affiliated with the First People’s Hospital in Shanghai. The Center was founded by combining the “Shanghai Organ Transplant Research Center” and the “Shanghai Tissue Typing Center.” Initially relying on kidney transplants, the hospital currently claims to have performed transplants of the heart, liver, and combined transplants of liver-kidney, pancreas-kidney, kidney-adult pancreas islet cell and other substantive transplants including corneas, allogeneic finger, fetal pancreas islet cell, bone marrow, peripheral blood stem cell and cord blood stem cell.[79]

Shanghai Ruijin Hospital

Organ Transplant Center in Shanghai Ruijin Hospital was established in 2002.[80]

Shanghai Chest Hospital, affiliated with Shanghai Jiaotong University

In 2008, Shanghai Chest Hospital set up a “Lung Transplant Clinical Center”. The center provides guidance to many domestic hospitals in carrying out clinical lung transplantations.[81]

Tianjin First Central Hospital

Tianjin First Central Hospital Organ Transplant Center created in 1998 by Shen Zhongyang. Tianjin Institute of Organ Transplantation established in 2002. The center contains facilities for transplant surgery, transplantation medicine, transplant ICU, transplant follow-up, anesthesia, imaging, pathology, ultrasounds, transplant laboratories and other departments. The center is able to simultaneously carry out liver transplants, kidney transplants, pancreas transplants, small intestine transplants and heart transplants. This is the largest professional transplant organization in China and the largest organ transplant center in Asia.[82]

Affiliated Southwest Hospital of the Third Military Medical University

Southwest Hospital started clinical liver transplantation in May 1999, and was designated the key laboratory of the PLA for liver transplants in 2001. An International Collaboration Center was established in 2004 with the cooperation of Southwest Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital and Thomas E. Starzl Transplantation Institute of the University of Pittsburgh in the US.[83]

Transplantation Medical Engineering Research Center of the Ministry of Health

Approved by the Ministry of Health, the Transplantation Medical Engineering Technology Research Center was formally established in the Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, in 2005. During the first three years of its operation, the center successfully carried out hundreds of cases of piggyback liver transplantations and more than 1,000 cases of kidney transplantation, as well as multi-organ combined transplants of liver-kidney, liver-pancreas, liver-intestine and pancreas-kidney. It also performs spleen transplantations, pancreas transplantations, heart transplantations, split liver transplantations, liver transplantations between relatives, and thyroid and parathyroid transplants, as well as transplantation of cells from livers, spleens and pancreases.[84]

Multi-organ Combined Transplantation Research Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Health

The Key Laboratory for Multi-organ Combined Transplantation Research, under the Ministry of Health, was established in March 2001. Located in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, the laboratory has built up dedicated clinical sites for liver transplantation, kidney transplantation, bone marrow transplantation, and heart and lung transplantation. Their multi-organ combined transplantation project has been recommended by the Ministry of Health and provides technical support to more than 20 province and municipal hospitals.[85]

Changzheng Hospital, affiliated with Second Military Medical University of the PLA

The Organ Transplant Center in the Changzheng Hospital was established in early 2003 by combining the Department of Urology and General Surgery Liver Transplantation Department. On December 17, 2003, the center was approved by General Logistics Department of the PLA to become the first organ transplant institute of the PLA.[86]

 

 

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